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Training has always played a critical role in software security because software developers and architects often start with little security knowledge. 

Training Level 1

[T1.1: 71] Conduct software security awareness training.

To promote a culture of software security throughout the organization, the SSG conducts periodic software security awareness training. This training might be delivered via SSG members, an outside firm, the internal training organization, or e-learning, but course content isn’t necessarily tailored for a specific audience— developers, QA engineers, and project managers could attend the same “Introduction to Software Security” course, for example. Augment this content with a tailored approach that addresses the firm’s culture explicitly, which might include the process for building security in, avoiding common mistakes, and technology topics such as CI/CD and DevSecOps. Generic introductory courses that cover basic IT or high-level security concepts don’t generate satisfactory results. Likewise, awareness training aimed only at developers and not at other roles in the organization is insufficient.

[T1.7: 58] Deliver on-demand individual training.

The organization lowers the burden on students and reduces the cost of delivering software security training by offering on-demand training for SSDL stakeholders. The most obvious choice, e-learning, can be kept up to date through a subscription model, but an online curriculum must be engaging and relevant to students in various roles (e.g., developer, QA, cloud, ops, etc.) to achieve its intended purpose. Ineffective (e.g., aged, off-topic) training or training that isn’t used won’t create any change. Hot topics like containerization and security orchestration, and new delivery styles such as gamification, will attract more interest than boring policy discussions. For developers, it’s possible to provide training directly through the IDE right when it’s needed, but in some cases, building a new skill (such as cloud security or threat modeling) might be better suited for instructor-led training, which can also be provided on demand.

[T1.8: 53] Include security resources in onboarding.

The process for bringing new hires into a software engineering organization requires timely completion of a training module about software security. While the generic new hire process usually covers topics like picking a good password and avoiding phishing, this orientation period is enhanced to cover topics such as how to create, deploy, and operate secure code, the SSDL, security standards (see [SR1.1]), and internal security resources (see [SR1.2]). The objective is to ensure that new hires contribute to the security culture as soon as possible. Although a generic onboarding module is useful, it doesn’t take the place of a timely and more complete introductory software security course.

Training Level 2

[T2.5: 38] Enhance satellite (security champions) through training and events.

Strengthen the satellite network (see [SM2.3]) by inviting guest speakers or holding special events about advanced software security topics. This effort is about providing to the satellite customized training (e.g., the latest software security techniques for DevOps or serverless technologies, or on the implications of new policies and standards) so that it can fulfill its assigned responsibilities—it’s not about inviting satellite members to routine brown bags or signing them up for standard computer-based training. Similarly, a standing conference call with voluntary attendance won’t get the desired results, which are as much about building camaraderie as they are about sharing knowledge and organizational efficiency. Regular events build community and facilitate collaboration and collective problem-solving. Face-to-face meetings are by far the most effective, even if they happen only once or twice a year and even if some participants must attend by videoconferencing. In teams with many geographically dispersed and work-from-home members, simply turning on cameras and ensuring that everyone gets a chance to speak makes a substantial difference.

[T2.8: 28] Create and use material specific to company history.

To make a strong and lasting change in behavior, training includes material specific to the company’s history of software security challenges. When participants can see themselves in a problem, they’re more likely to understand how the material is relevant to their work as well as when and how to apply what they’ve learned. One way to do this is to use noteworthy attacks on the company’s software as examples in the training curriculum. Both successful and unsuccessful attacks, as well as notable results from penetration tests and red team exercises, can make good teachable moments. Stories from company history can help steer training in the right direction, but only if those stories are still relevant and not overly censored. This training should cover platforms used by developers (developers orchestrating containers probably won’t care about old virtualization problems) and problems relevant to languages in common use.

[T2.9: 33] Deliver role-specific advanced curriculum.

Software security training goes beyond building awareness (see [T1.1]) by enabling students to incorporate security practices into their work. This training is tailored to cover the tools, technology stacks, development methodologies, and issues that are most relevant to students. An organization could offer tracks for its engineers, for example, one each for architects, developers, operations, DevOps, site reliability engineers, and testers. Tool- specific training is also commonly needed in such a curriculum. While it might be more concise than engineering training, role- specific training is also necessary for many stakeholders within an organization, including product management, executives, and others. In any case, the training must be taken by a broad enough audience to build the collective skillsets required.

[T2.10: 28] Host software security events.

The organization hosts security events featuring external speakers and content in order to strengthen its security culture. Good examples of such events are Intel iSecCon and AWS re:Inforce, which invite all employees, feature external presenters, and focus on helping engineering create, deploy, and operate better code. Employees benefit from hearing outside perspectives, especially those related to fast-moving technology areas with software security ramifications, and the organization benefits from putting its security credentials on display (see [SM3.2]). Events open only to small, select groups, or simply putting recordings on an internal portal, won’t result in the desired culture change across the organization. 

[T2.11: 27] Require an annual refresher.

Everyone involved in the SSDL is required to take an annual software security refresher course. This course keeps the staff up to date on the organization’s security approach and ensures that the organization doesn’t lose focus due to turnover, evolving methodologies, or changing deployment models. The SSG might give an update on the security landscape and explain changes to policies and standards. A refresher could also be rolled out as part of a firm- wide security day or in concert with an internal security conference. Coverage of new topics and changes to the previous year’s content should result in a significant amount of fresh content.

Training Level 3

[T3.1: 9] Reward progression through curriculum.

Progression through the security curriculum brings personal benefits, such as public acknowledgement or career advancement. The reward system can be formal and lead to a certification or an official mark in the human resources system, or it can be less formal and include motivators such as documented praise at annual review time. Involving a corporate training department and human resources team can make the impact of improving security skills on career progression more obvious, but the SSG should continue to monitor security knowledge in the firm and not cede complete control or oversight. Coffee mugs and t-shirts can build morale, but it usually takes the possibility of real career progression to change behavior.

[T3.2: 16] Provide training for vendors and outsourced workers.

Vendors and outsourced workers receive the same level of software security training given to employees. Spending time and effort helping suppliers get security right at the outset is much easier than trying to determine what went wrong later, especially if the development team has moved on to other projects. Training individual contractors is much more natural than training entire outsourced firms and is a reasonable place to start. It’s important that everyone who works on the firm’s software has an appropriate level of training that increases their capability of meeting the software security expectations for their role, regardless of their employment status. Of course, some vendors and outsourced workers might have received adequate training from their own firms, but that should always be verified.

[T3.5: 22] Provide expertise via open collaboration channels.

Software security experts offer help to anyone in an open manner during regularly scheduled office hours or openly accessible channels on Slack, Jira, or similar. By acting as an informal resource for people who want to solve security problems, the SSG leverages teachable moments and emphasizes the carrot over the stick approach to security best practices. Office hours might be hosted one afternoon per week by a senior SSG member, perhaps inviting briefings from product or application groups working on hard security problems. Slack and other messaging applications can capture questions 24x7, functioning as an office hours platform when appropriate subject matter experts are consistently part of the conversation and are ensuring that the answers generated align with SSG expectations. An online approach has the added benefit of discussions being recorded and searchable.

[T3.6: 7] Identify new satellite members (security champions) through observation.

Future satellite members (e.g., security champions) are recruited by noting people who stand out during training courses, office hours, capture-the-flag exercises, hack-a-thons, and other opportunities that show skill and enthusiasm, then encouraging them to join the satellite. Pay particular attention to practitioners who are contributing things such as code, security configurations, or defect discovery rules. The satellite often begins as an assigned collection of people scattered across the organization who show an above-average level of security interest or advanced knowledge of new technology stacks and development methodologies (see [SM2.3]). Identifying future members proactively is a step toward creating a social network that speeds the adoption of security into software development and operations. A group of enthusiastic and skilled volunteers will be easier to lead than a group that is drafted.